Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Monitoring forest species diversity is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecological management. Currently, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing technology has been increasingly used in biodiversity monitoring due to its flexibility and low cost. In this study, we compared two methods for estimating forest species diversity indices, namely the spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification approach based on the established species-spectral library, and the self-adaptive.
Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm by selected biochemical and structural features. We conducted this study in two complex subtropical forest areas, Mazongling (MZL) and Spain phone number list Gonggashan (GGS) National Nature Forest Reserves using UAV-borne hyperspectral and LiDAR data. The results showed that the classification method performed better with higher values of R2 than the clustering algorithm for predicting both species richness (0.62 > 0.46 for MZL and 0.55 > 0.46 for GGS) and Shannon-Wiener index (0.64 > 0.58 for MZL, 0.52 > 0.47 for GGS). However, the Simpson index estimated with the field measurements than the clustering algorithm.
Our study demonstrated that the classification method could provide more accurate monitoring of forest diversity indices but requires spectral information of all dominant tree species at individual canopy scale. By comparison, the clustering method might introduce uncertainties due to the amounts of biochemical and structural inputs derived from the hyperspectral and LiDAR data, but it could acquire forest diversity patterns rapidly without distinguishing the specific tree species. Our findings underlined the advantages of UAV remote sensing for monitoring the species diversity in complex forest ecosystems and discussed the applicability of classification and clustering methods for estimating different individual tree-based species diversity indices.